Shortest Miner App - become bitcoin miner

[lughnasadh] Beijing-based hardware manufacturer, Bitmain, unveils world's smallest bitcoin miner at 16-nanometers long

submitted by raddit-bot to FuturologyRemovals [link] [comments]

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Beijing-based hardware manufacturer, Bitmain, unveils world's smallest bitcoin miner at 16-nanometers long /r/tech

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Beijing-based hardware manufacturer, Bitmain, unveils world's smallest bitcoin miner at 16-nanometers long /tech submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

I don't understand - if there was the smallest suspicion that covert ASICBOOST is being used wouldn't all the other miners immediately signal segwit in order to disable it? /r/Bitcoin

I don't understand - if there was the smallest suspicion that covert ASICBOOST is being used wouldn't all the other miners immediately signal segwit in order to disable it? /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Robinhood vs. The Paywall

Paywalls are, technologically speaking, quite fragile. In fact, as of today, if you are quick enough at the keyboard, you can easily copy the full text of a New York Times article before the Javascript kicks in and trims it.
I do this sometimes and I have a fast machine and a fast internet connection, which should make it harder. Other sites are more clever, but for the most part, paywalls are still a bit of a joke.
However, they're getting a lot better and more prevalent. I can imagine that right now an engineer at NYT is working on a better paywall with no practical way of cheating it.
All that aside, an article is just a piece of ordered text and some formatting, and I don't see that changing any time soon. Once you're past the paywall, the text just sits there in your browser, or in your email, or whatever. It can be viewed, copied, pasted, or read by a 3rd party extension.
What would it take, practically speaking, to "Robinhood" that text and make it freely available to everyone whether or not they've paid for it? There are numerous ways to access paywalled content today, which I won't share but aren't hard to find. But I'm interested in whether or not there is a solution that is so robust that it backs publishers into a corner where they need to find another way to make money. And when I say "robust" I mostly mean "legal", because I am assuming that any illegal method would ultimately lose out in a game of legal whack-a-mole (think torrent trackers or darknet markets).
Anyways, some initial considerations...
  1. You'd have to have at least one participant who has access to the paywalled content, but ideally many more than that who can all participate in tossing the content back over the paywall.
  2. You would need to have an immutable and accessible place to put the paywalled content so that other people could point their browsers to that location and see the same content that they would if they were looking at the source.
  3. As noted, you'd want to eliminate as much legal risk as possible. That goes for both the content "suppliers" and the content "consumers" (or, Robinhood and those he gives to).
I am not sure exactly what would happen if I just started copying and pasting paywalled content on, say, Reddit, but I am pretty sure it would catch up with me eventually because I am explicitly re-publishing. This solution would need to be so foolproof that it would put those who would otherwise enforce against it in an untenable position.
So, bear with me, here's what I want to know: how flawed, immoral, antisocial, and generally lacking is the following idea? My suspicion is that it is a pretty bad idea and is also pretty naive, but it's still been fun to think about and maybe some of you would like to discuss it. I am interested in any implications that come to mind.
~
The idea:
If you want to participate in this scheme, you install a browser extension. If you have access to any paywalled content, then every time you visit a page and view that content, the browser extension grabs the text and compresses it to its smallest possible representation.
Next, the browser extension make the smallest possible arbitrary transaction on the blockchain (looks to be about $0.06 currently), and stores as much of the article as it can fit in the OP_RETURN field, which is basically just a blank field for arbitrary text and currently has a size limit of 256 bytes (Note: There are tons of similar ways to accomplish the same thing, any many better blockchains for this use case. I just don't really keep up with the smaller blockchains and think that we can use the Bitcoin blockchain as a simple way to demonstrate the idea).
It may take a few transactions to store an entire article, but once it's part of the blockchain, it's there forever, and anyone who would want to subsequently view that article would only need to have access to the indices of the transactions and software that can de-compress the OP_RETURN values and reconstruct the article. I imagine this would also happen in the browser extension.
In this way, it's a lot like private torrent trackers. Everybody shares what they have access to, and the pieces of data that comprise the underlying media fly around the network freely. The software client is responsible for piecing them together and making the data cohesive for a given end user.
Today, a torrent client is completely legal, but having pirated media on your computer is not. Also, I'm pretty sure that opening your media collection to peers is also illegal, but I'm not actually sure.
Using the blockchain as the storage mechanism changes the calculus a little bit. You're not storing any pirated data on your machine, rather, you are stashing bits and pieces of it in a decentralized ledger, which nobody owns, meaning that nobody is really accountable for it. It's also impossible to take down.
The question of legality here is something like "are you allowed to include copyrighted works in transaction text on the blockchain?". And if not, how many chunks would the article need to be broken apart into to make it no long "The Article", but rather just pieces of arbitrary data which, if put together in the right order, would happen to reproduce "The Article"? Someone who is more knowledgable than I am would need to chime in here.
~
I wanted to get a sense of if this is even practical so I grabbed the text from a NYT article called "Opinion | No, the Democrats Haven’t Gone Over the Edge" by David Brooks.
After running the text through 1000 rounds of compression I got it down to 2702 bytes. The current OP_RETURN size limit for a BTC transaction is 256 bytes, so you would need to make around 10 transactions to store this single article.
And each transaction has a fee that goes to miners, which appears to be around 128 satoshis/byte according to https://privacypros.io/tools/bitcoin-fee-estimato
The BTC sent in a given transaction is recoverable, because it could be sent to a wallet that is owned by the sender, but the fees are unavoidable. Given the current rate, storing a NYT Opinion article on the Bitcoin blockchain, forever, would cost about 2707 * 128 Satoshis, or roughly $37.
So my immediate thought is wow that's expensive. I also know that it's frowned upon by the Bitcoin community and would be perceived as antagonistic by the miners. But my guess is that there's a better way to accomplish the same thing (again, off-chain transactions or using a totally different blockchain such as Ethereum, or BSV).
In fact, in "The unfuckening of OP_RETURN", Shadders shows that one can practically store up to 100kb of text in a given BSV transaction (BSV is a fork of bitcoin, which aims to align more with Satoshi's "original" vision).
The result of Shadders experiment? Well, here's the complete prequel to "Alice and Wonderland" in a single transaction, on the blockchain, forever: https://whatsonchain.com/tx/ef21e71d00b9fce174222e679640b09e29ac8a55f321c93e64b16cc3109959f8
Good thing Alice and Wonderland is in the public domain, right? Or... should it even matter what's "public" and what's "paywalled"?
What do you think?
submitted by mrctte to TheMotte [link] [comments]

Ultimate glossary of crypto currency terms, acronyms and abbreviations

I thought it would be really cool to have an ultimate guide for those new to crypto currencies and the terms used. I made this mostly for beginner’s and veterans alike. I’m not sure how much use you will get out of this. Stuff gets lost on Reddit quite easily so I hope this finds its way to you. Included in this list, I have included most of the terms used in crypto-communities. I have compiled this list from a multitude of sources. The list is in alphabetical order and may include some words/terms not exclusive to the crypto world but may be helpful regardless.
2FA
Two factor authentication. I highly advise that you use it.
51% Attack:
A situation where a single malicious individual or group gains control of more than half of a cryptocurrency network’s computing power. Theoretically, it could allow perpetrators to manipulate the system and spend the same coin multiple times, stop other users from completing blocks and make conflicting transactions to a chain that could harm the network.
Address (or Addy):
A unique string of numbers and letters (both upper and lower case) used to send, receive or store cryptocurrency on the network. It is also the public key in a pair of keys needed to sign a digital transaction. Addresses can be shared publicly as a text or in the form of a scannable QR code. They differ between cryptocurrencies. You can’t send Bitcoin to an Ethereum address, for example.
Altcoin (alternative coin): Any digital currency other than Bitcoin. These other currencies are alternatives to Bitcoin regarding features and functionalities (e.g. faster confirmation time, lower price, improved mining algorithm, higher total coin supply). There are hundreds of altcoins, including Ether, Ripple, Litecoin and many many others.
AIRDROP:
An event where the investors/participants are able to receive free tokens or coins into their digital wallet.
AML: Defines Anti-Money Laundering laws**.**
ARBITRAGE:
Getting risk-free profits by trading (simultaneous buying and selling of the cryptocurrency) on two different exchanges which have different prices for the same asset.
Ashdraked:
Being Ashdraked is essentially a more detailed version of being Zhoutonged. It is when you lose all of your invested capital, but you do so specifically by shorting Bitcoin. The expression “Ashdraked” comes from a story of a Romanian cryptocurrency investor who insisted upon shorting BTC, as he had done so successfully in the past. When the price of BTC rose from USD 300 to USD 500, the Romanian investor lost all of his money.
ATH (All Time High):
The highest price ever achieved by a cryptocurrency in its entire history. Alternatively, ATL is all time low
Bearish:
A tendency of prices to fall; a pessimistic expectation that the value of a coin is going to drop.
Bear trap:
A manipulation of a stock or commodity by investors.
Bitcoin:
The very first, and the highest ever valued, mass-market open source and decentralized cryptocurrency and digital payment system that runs on a worldwide peer to peer network. It operates independently of any centralized authorities
Bitconnect:
One of the biggest scams in the crypto world. it was made popular in the meme world by screaming idiot Carlos Matos, who infamously proclaimed," hey hey heeeey” and “what's a what's a what's up wasssssssssuuuuuuuuuuuuup, BitConneeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeect!”. He is now in the mentally ill meme hall of fame.
Block:
A package of permanently recorded data about transactions occurring every time period (typically about 10 minutes) on the blockchain network. Once a record has been completed and verified, it goes into a blockchain and gives way to the next block. Each block also contains a complex mathematical puzzle with a unique answer, without which new blocks can’t be added to the chain.
Blockchain:
An unchangeable digital record of all transactions ever made in a particular cryptocurrency and shared across thousands of computers worldwide. It has no central authority governing it. Records, or blocks, are chained to each other using a cryptographic signature. They are stored publicly and chronologically, from the genesis block to the latest block, hence the term blockchain. Anyone can have access to the database and yet it remains incredibly difficult to hack.
Bullish:
A tendency of prices to rise; an optimistic expectation that a specific cryptocurrency will do well and its value is going to increase.
BTFD:
Buy the fucking dip. This advise was bestowed upon us by the gods themselves. It is the iron code to crypto enthusiasts.
Bull market:
A market that Cryptos are going up.
Consensus:
An agreement among blockchain participants on the validity of data. Consensus is reached when the majority of nodes on the network verify that the transaction is 100% valid.
Crypto bubble:
The instability of cryptocurrencies in terms of price value
Cryptocurrency:
A type of digital currency, secured by strong computer code (cryptography), that operates independently of any middlemen or central authoritie
Cryptography:
The art of converting sensitive data into a format unreadable for unauthorized users, which when decoded would result in a meaningful statement.
Cryptojacking:
The use of someone else’s device and profiting from its computational power to mine cryptocurrency without their knowledge and consent.
Crypto-Valhalla:
When HODLers(holders) eventually cash out they go to a place called crypto-Valhalla. The strong will be separated from the weak and the strong will then be given lambos.
DAO:
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. It defines A blockchain technology inspired organization or corporation that exists and operates without human intervention.
Dapp (decentralized application):
An open-source application that runs and stores its data on a blockchain network (instead of a central server) to prevent a single failure point. This software is not controlled by the single body – information comes from people providing other people with data or computing power.
Decentralized:
A system with no fundamental control authority that governs the network. Instead, it is jointly managed by all users to the system.
Desktop wallet:
A wallet that stores the private keys on your computer, which allow the spending and management of your bitcoins.
DILDO:
Long red or green candles. This is a crypto signal that tells you that it is not favorable to trade at the moment. Found on candlestick charts.
Digital Signature:
An encrypted digital code attached to an electronic document to prove that the sender is who they say they are and confirm that a transaction is valid and should be accepted by the network.
Double Spending:
An attack on the blockchain where a malicious user manipulates the network by sending digital money to two different recipients at exactly the same time.
DYOR:
Means do your own research.
Encryption:
Converting data into code to protect it from unauthorized access, so that only the intended recipient(s) can decode it.
Eskrow:
the practice of having a third party act as an intermediary in a transaction. This third party holds the funds on and sends them off when the transaction is completed.
Ethereum:
Ethereum is an open source, public, blockchain-based platform that runs smart contracts and allows you to build dapps on it. Ethereum is fueled by the cryptocurrency Ether.
Exchange:
A platform (centralized or decentralized) for exchanging (trading) different forms of cryptocurrencies. These exchanges allow you to exchange cryptos for local currency. Some popular exchanges are Coinbase, Bittrex, Kraken and more.
Faucet:
A website which gives away free cryptocurrencies.
Fiat money:
Fiat currency is legal tender whose value is backed by the government that issued it, such as the US dollar or UK pound.
Fork:
A split in the blockchain, resulting in two separate branches, an original and a new alternate version of the cryptocurrency. As a single blockchain forks into two, they will both run simultaneously on different parts of the network. For example, Bitcoin Cash is a Bitcoin fork.
FOMO:
Fear of missing out.
Frictionless:
A system is frictionless when there are zero transaction costs or trading retraints.
FUD:
Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt regarding the crypto market.
Gas:
A fee paid to run transactions, dapps and smart contracts on Ethereum.
Halving:
A 50% decrease in block reward after the mining of a pre-specified number of blocks. Every 4 years, the “reward” for successfully mining a block of bitcoin is reduced by half. This is referred to as “Halving”.
Hardware wallet:
Physical wallet devices that can securely store cryptocurrency maximally. Some examples are Ledger Nano S**,** Digital Bitbox and more**.**
Hash:
The process that takes input data of varying sizes, performs an operation on it and converts it into a fixed size output. It cannot be reversed.
Hashing:
The process by which you mine bitcoin or similar cryptocurrency, by trying to solve the mathematical problem within it, using cryptographic hash functions.
HODL:
A Bitcoin enthusiast once accidentally misspelled the word HOLD and it is now part of the bitcoin legend. It can also mean hold on for dear life.
ICO (Initial Coin Offering):
A blockchain-based fundraising mechanism, or a public crowd sale of a new digital coin, used to raise capital from supporters for an early stage crypto venture. Beware of these as there have been quite a few scams in the past.
John mcAfee:
A man who will one day eat his balls on live television for falsely predicting bitcoin going to 100k. He has also become a small meme within the crypto community for his outlandish claims.
JOMO:
Joy of missing out. For those who are so depressed about missing out their sadness becomes joy.
KYC:
Know your customer(alternatively consumer).
Lambo:
This stands for Lamborghini. A small meme within the investing community where the moment someone gets rich they spend their earnings on a lambo. One day we will all have lambos in crypto-valhalla.
Ledger:
Away from Blockchain, it is a book of financial transactions and balances. In the world of crypto, the blockchain functions as a ledger. A digital currency’s ledger records all transactions which took place on a certain block chain network.
Leverage:
Trading with borrowed capital (margin) in order to increase the potential return of an investment.
Liquidity:
The availability of an asset to be bought and sold easily, without affecting its market price.
of the coins.
Margin trading:
The trading of assets or securities bought with borrowed money.
Market cap/MCAP:
A short-term for Market Capitalization. Market Capitalization refers to the market value of a particular cryptocurrency. It is computed by multiplying the Price of an individual unit of coins by the total circulating supply.
Miner:
A computer participating in any cryptocurrency network performing proof of work. This is usually done to receive block rewards.
Mining:
The act of solving a complex math equation to validate a blockchain transaction using computer processing power and specialized hardware.
Mining contract:
A method of investing in bitcoin mining hardware, allowing anyone to rent out a pre-specified amount of hashing power, for an agreed amount of time. The mining service takes care of hardware maintenance, hosting and electricity costs, making it simpler for investors.
Mining rig:
A computer specially designed for mining cryptocurrencies.
Mooning:
A situation the price of a coin rapidly increases in value. Can also be used as: “I hope bitcoin goes to the moon”
Node:
Any computing device that connects to the blockchain network.
Open source:
The practice of sharing the source code for a piece of computer software, allowing it to be distributed and altered by anyone.
OTC:
Over the counter. Trading is done directly between parties.
P2P (Peer to Peer):
A type of network connection where participants interact directly with each other rather than through a centralized third party. The system allows the exchange of resources from A to B, without having to go through a separate server.
Paper wallet:
A form of “cold storage” where the private keys are printed onto a piece of paper and stored offline. Considered as one of the safest crypto wallets, the truth is that it majors in sweeping coins from your wallets.
Pre mining:
The mining of a cryptocurrency by its developers before it is released to the public.
Proof of stake (POS):
A consensus distribution algorithm which essentially rewards you based upon the amount of the coin that you own. In other words, more investment in the coin will leads to more gain when you mine with this protocol In Proof of Stake, the resource held by the “miner” is their stake in the currency.
PROOF OF WORK (POW) :
The competition of computers competing to solve a tough crypto math problem. The first computer that does this is allowed to create new blocks and record information.” The miner is then usually rewarded via transaction fees.
Protocol:
A standardized set of rules for formatting and processing data.
Public key / private key:
A cryptographic code that allows a user to receive cryptocurrencies into an account. The public key is made available to everyone via a publicly accessible directory, and the private key remains confidential to its respective owner. Because the key pair is mathematically related, whatever is encrypted with a public key may only be decrypted by its corresponding private key.
Pump and dump:
Massive buying and selling activity of cryptocurrencies (sometimes organized and to one’s benefit) which essentially result in a phenomenon where the significant surge in the value of coin followed by a huge crash take place in a short time frame.
Recovery phrase:
A set of phrases you are given whereby you can regain or access your wallet should you lose the private key to your wallets — paper, mobile, desktop, and hardware wallet. These phrases are some random 12–24 words. A recovery Phrase can also be called as Recovery seed, Seed Key, Recovery Key, or Seed Phrase.
REKT:
Referring to the word “wrecked”. It defines a situation whereby an investor or trader who has been ruined utterly following the massive losses suffered in crypto industry.
Ripple:
An alternative payment network to Bitcoin based on similar cryptography. The ripple network uses XRP as currency and is capable of sending any asset type.
ROI:
Return on investment.
Safu:
A crypto term for safe popularized by the Bizonnaci YouTube channel after the CEO of Binance tweeted
“Funds are safe."
“the exchage I use got hacked!”“Oh no, are your funds safu?”
“My coins better be safu!”


Sats/Satoshi:
The smallest fraction of a bitcoin is called a “satoshi” or “sat”. It represents one hundred-millionth of a bitcoin and is named after Satoshi Nakamoto.
Satoshi Nakamoto:
This was the pseudonym for the mysterious creator of Bitcoin.
Scalability:
The ability of a cryptocurrency to contain the massive use of its Blockchain.
Sharding:
A scaling solution for the Blockchain. It is generally a method that allows nodes to have partial copies of the complete blockchain in order to increase overall network performance and consensus speeds.
Shitcoin:
Coin with little potential or future prospects.
Shill:
Spreading buzz by heavily promoting a particular coin in the community to create awareness.
Short position:
Selling of a specific cryptocurrency with an expectation that it will drop in value.
Silk road:
The online marketplace where drugs and other illicit items were traded for Bitcoin. This marketplace is using accessed through “TOR”, and VPNs. In October 2013, a Silk Road was shut down in by the FBI.
Smart Contract:
Certain computational benchmarks or barriers that have to be met in turn for money or data to be deposited or even be used to verify things such as land rights.
Software Wallet:
A crypto wallet that exists purely as software files on a computer. Usually, software wallets can be generated for free from a variety of sources.
Solidity:
A contract-oriented coding language for implementing smart contracts on Ethereum. Its syntax is similar to that of JavaScript.
Stable coin:
A cryptocoin with an extremely low volatility that can be used to trade against the overall market.
Staking:
Staking is the process of actively participating in transaction validation (similar to mining) on a proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain. On these blockchains, anyone with a minimum-required balance of a specific cryptocurrency can validate transactions and earn Staking rewards.
Surge:
When a crypto currency appreciates or goes up in price.
Tank:
The opposite of mooning. When a coin tanks it can also be described as crashing.
Tendies
For traders , the chief prize is “tendies” (chicken tenders, the treat an overgrown man-child receives for being a “Good Boy”) .
Token:
A unit of value that represents a digital asset built on a blockchain system. A token is usually considered as a “coin” of a cryptocurrency, but it really has a wider functionality.
TOR: “The Onion Router” is a free web browser designed to protect users’ anonymity and resist censorship. Tor is usually used surfing the web anonymously and access sites on the “Darkweb”.
Transaction fee:
An amount of money users are charged from their transaction when sending cryptocurrencies.
Volatility:
A measure of fluctuations in the price of a financial instrument over time. High volatility in bitcoin is seen as risky since its shifting value discourages people from spending or accepting it.
Wallet:
A file that stores all your private keys and communicates with the blockchain to perform transactions. It allows you to send and receive bitcoins securely as well as view your balance and transaction history.
Whale:
An investor that holds a tremendous amount of cryptocurrency. Their extraordinary large holdings allow them to control prices and manipulate the market.
Whitepaper:

A comprehensive report or guide made to understand an issue or help decision making. It is also seen as a technical write up that most cryptocurrencies provide to take a deep look into the structure and plan of the cryptocurrency/Blockchain project. Satoshi Nakamoto was the first to release a whitepaper on Bitcoin, titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” in late 2008.
And with that I finally complete my odyssey. I sincerely hope that this helped you and if you are new, I welcome you to crypto. If you read all of that I hope it increased, you in knowledge.
my final definition:
Crypto-Family:
A collection of all the HODLers and crypto fanatics. A place where all people alike unite over a love for crypto.
We are all in this together as we pioneer the new world that is crypto currency. I wish you a great day and Happy HODLing.
-u/flacciduck
feel free to comment words or terms that you feel should be included or about any errors I made.
Edit1:some fixes were made and added words.
submitted by flacciduck to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Just some perspective. I remember the last halvening and the one before that. The price hardly moved the day of the event. People need to understand that yes it is a great fundamental part of the protocol of bitcoin... but the effect of this protocol is something that is felt over the long haul.

Just some perspective. I remember the last halvening and the one before that. The price hardly moved the day of the event. People need to understand that yes it is a great fundamental part of the protocol of bitcoin... but the effect of this protocol is something that is felt over the long haul. submitted by CallingGooses to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Gridcoin 5.0.0.0-Mandatory "Fern" Release

https://github.com/gridcoin-community/Gridcoin-Research/releases/tag/5.0.0.0
Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that.
Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap.
We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout.
Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.

Highlights

Protocol

Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now.
Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date.
The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.

GUI

Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.

Blockchain

The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use.
There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all.
I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures.
The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!

Summary Changelog

Accrual

Changed

Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.

Removed

Beacons

Added

Changed

Removed

Unaltered

As a reminder:

Superblocks

Added

Changed

Removed

Voting

Added

Changed

Removed

Detailed Changelog

[5.0.0.0] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"

Added

Changed

Removed

Fixed

submitted by jamescowens to gridcoin [link] [comments]

Since they're calling for r/btc to be banned...

Maybe it's time to discuss bitcoin's history again. Credit to u/singularity87 for the original post over 3 years ago.

People should get the full story of bitcoin because it is probably one of the strangest of all reddit subs.
bitcoin, the main sub for the bitcoin community is held and run by a person who goes by the pseudonym u/theymos. Theymos not only controls bitcoin, but also bitcoin.org and bitcointalk.com. These are top three communication channels for the bitcoin community, all controlled by just one person.
For most of bitcoin's history this did not create a problem (at least not an obvious one anyway) until around mid 2015. This happened to be around the time a new player appeared on the scene, a for-profit company called Blockstream. Blockstream was made up of/hired many (but not all) of the main bitcoin developers. (To be clear, Blockstream was founded before mid 2015 but did not become publicly active until then). A lot of people, including myself, tried to point out there we're some very serious potential conflicts of interest that could arise when one single company controls most of the main developers for the biggest decentralised and distributed cryptocurrency. There were a lot of unknowns but people seemed to give them the benefit of the doubt because they were apparently about to release some new software called "sidechains" that could offer some benefits to the network.
Not long after Blockstream came on the scene the issue of bitcoin's scalability once again came to forefront of the community. This issue came within the community a number of times since bitcoins inception. Bitcoin, as dictated in the code, cannot handle any more than around 3 transactions per second at the moment. To put that in perspective Paypal handles around 15 transactions per second on average and VISA handles something like 2000 transactions per second. The discussion in the community has been around how best to allow bitcoin to scale to allow a higher number of transactions in a given amount of time. I suggest that if anyone is interested in learning more about this problem from a technical angle, they go to btc and do a search. It's a complex issue but for many who have followed bitcoin for many years, the possible solutions seem relatively obvious. Essentially, currently the limit is put in place in just a few lines of code. This was not originally present when bitcoin was first released. It was in fact put in place afterwards as a measure to stop a bloating attack on the network. Because all bitcoin transactions have to be stored forever on the bitcoin network, someone could theoretically simply transmit a large number of transactions which would have to be stored by the entire network forever. When bitcoin was released, transactions were actually for free as the only people running the network were enthusiasts. In fact a single bitcoin did not even have any specific value so it would be impossible set a fee value. This meant that a malicious person could make the size of the bitcoin ledger grow very rapidly without much/any cost which would stop people from wanting to join the network due to the resource requirements needed to store it, which at the time would have been for very little gain.
Towards the end of the summer last year, this bitcoin scaling debate surfaced again as it was becoming clear that the transaction limit for bitcoin was semi regularly being reached and that it would not be long until it would be regularly hit and the network would become congested. This was a very serious issue for a currency. Bitcoin had made progress over the years to the point of retailers starting to offer it as a payment option. Bitcoin companies like, Microsoft, Paypal, Steam and many more had began to adopt it. If the transaction limit would be constantly maxed out, the network would become unreliable and slow for users. Users and businesses would not be able to make a reliable estimate when their transaction would be confirmed by the network.
Users, developers and businesses (which at the time was pretty much the only real bitcoin subreddit) started to discuss how we should solve the problem bitcoin. There was significant support from the users and businesses behind a simple solution put forward by the developer Gavin Andreesen. Gavin was the lead developer after Satoshi Nakamoto left bitcoin and he left it in his hands. Gavin initially proposed a very simple solution of increasing the limit which was to change the few lines of code to increase the maximum number of transactions that are allowed. For most of bitcoin's history the transaction limit had been set far far higher than the number of transactions that could potentially happen on the network. The concept of increasing the limit one time was based on the fact that history had proven that no issue had been cause by this in the past.
A certain group of bitcoin developers decided that increasing the limit by this amount was too much and that it was dangerous. They said that the increased use of resources that the network would use would create centralisation pressures which could destroy the network. The theory was that a miner of the network with more resources could publish many more transactions than a competing small miner could handle and therefore the network would tend towards few large miners rather than many small miners. The group of developers who supported this theory were all developers who worked for the company Blockstream. The argument from people in support of increasing the transaction capacity by this amount was that there are always inherent centralisation pressure with bitcoin mining. For example miners who can access the cheapest electricity will tend to succeed and that bigger miners will be able to find this cheaper electricity easier. Miners who have access to the most efficient computer chips will tend to succeed and that larger miners are more likely to be able to afford the development of them. The argument from Gavin and other who supported increasing the transaction capacity by this method are essentially there are economies of scale in mining and that these economies have far bigger centralisation pressures than increased resource cost for a larger number of transactions (up to the new limit proposed). For example, at the time the total size of the blockchain was around 50GB. Even for the cost of a 500GB SSD is only $150 and would last a number of years. This is in-comparison to the $100,000's in revenue per day a miner would be making.
Various developers put forth various other proposals, including Gavin Andresen who put forth a more conservative increase that would then continue to increase over time inline with technological improvements. Some of the employees of blockstream also put forth some proposals, but all were so conservative, it would take bitcoin many decades before it could reach a scale of VISA. Even though there was significant support from the community behind Gavin's simple proposal of increasing the limit it was becoming clear certain members of the bitcoin community who were part of Blockstream were starting to become increasingly vitriolic and divisive. Gavin then teamed up with one of the other main bitcoin developers Mike Hearn and released a coded (i.e. working) version of the bitcoin software that would only activate if it was supported by a significant majority of the network. What happened next was where things really started to get weird.
After this free and open source software was released, Theymos, the person who controls all the main communication channels for the bitcoin community implemented a new moderation policy that disallowed any discussion of this new software. Specifically, if people were to discuss this software, their comments would be deleted and ultimately they would be banned temporarily or permanently. This caused chaos within the community as there was very clear support for this software at the time and it seemed our best hope for finally solving the problem and moving on. Instead a censorship campaign was started. At first it 'all' they were doing was banning and removing discussions but after a while it turned into actively manipulating the discussion. For example, if a thread was created where there was positive sentiment for increasing the transaction capacity or being negative about the moderation policies or negative about the actions of certain bitcoin developers, the mods of bitcoin would selectively change the sorting order of threads to 'controversial' so that the most support opinions would be sorted to the bottom of the thread and the most vitriolic would be sorted to the top of the thread. This was initially very transparent as it was possible to see that the most downvoted comments were at the top and some of the most upvoted were at the bottom. So they then implemented hiding the voting scores next to the users name. This made impossible to work out the sentiment of the community and when combined with selectively setting the sorting order to controversial it was possible control what information users were seeing. Also, due to the very very large number of removed comments and users it was becoming obvious the scale of censorship going on. To hide this they implemented code in their CSS for the sub that completely hid comments that they had removed so that the censorship itself was hidden. Anyone in support of scaling bitcoin were removed from the main communication channels. Theymos even proudly announced that he didn't care if he had to remove 90% of the users. He also later acknowledged that he knew he had the ability to block support of this software using the control he had over the communication channels.
While this was all going on, Blockstream and it's employees started lobbying the community by paying for conferences about scaling bitcoin, but with the very very strange rule that no decisions could be made and no complete solutions could be proposed. These conferences were likely strategically (and successfully) created to stunt support for the scaling software Gavin and Mike had released by forcing the community to take a "lets wait and see what comes from the conferences" kind of approach. Since no final solutions were allowed at these conferences, they only served to hinder and splinter the communities efforts to find a solution. As the software Gavin and Mike released called BitcoinXT gained support it started to be attacked. Users of the software were attack by DDOS. Employees of Blockstream were recommending attacks against the software, such as faking support for it, to only then drop support at the last moment to put the network in disarray. Blockstream employees were also publicly talking about suing Gavin and Mike from various different angles simply for releasing this open source software that no one was forced to run. In the end Mike Hearn decided to leave due to the way many members of the bitcoin community had treated him. This was due to the massive disinformation campaign against him on bitcoin. One of the many tactics that are used against anyone who does not support Blockstream and the bitcoin developers who work for them is that you will be targeted in a smear campaign. This has happened to a number of individuals and companies who showed support for scaling bitcoin. Theymos has threatened companies that he will ban any discussion of them on the communication channels he controls (i.e. all the main ones) for simply running software that he disagrees with (i.e. any software that scales bitcoin).
As time passed, more and more proposals were offered, all against the backdrop of ever increasing censorship in the main bitcoin communication channels. It finally come down the smallest and most conservative solution. This solution was much smaller than even the employees of Blockstream had proposed months earlier. As usual there was enormous attacks from all sides and the most vocal opponents were the employees of Blockstream. These attacks still are ongoing today. As this software started to gain support, Blockstream organised more meetings, especially with the biggest bitcoin miners and made a pact with them. They promised that they would release code that would offer an on-chain scaling solution hardfork within about 4 months, but if the miners wanted this they would have to commit to running their software and only their software. The miners agreed and the ended up not running the most conservative proposal possible. This was in February last year. There is no hardfork proposal in sight from the people who agreed to this pact and bitcoin is still stuck with the exact same transaction limit it has had since the limit was put in place about 6 years ago. Gavin has also been publicly smeared by the developers at Blockstream and a plot was made against him to have him removed from the development team. Gavin has now been, for all intents an purposes, expelled from bitcoin development. This has meant that all control of bitcoin development is in the hands of the developers working at Blockstream.
There is a new proposal that offers a market based approach to scaling bitcoin. This essentially lets the market decide. Of course, as usual there has been attacks against it, and verbal attacks from the employees of Blockstream. This has the biggest chance of gaining wide support and solving the problem for good.
To give you an idea of Blockstream; It has hired most of the main and active bitcoin developers and is now synonymous with the "Core" bitcoin development team. They AFAIK no products at all. They have received around $75m in funding. Every single thing they do is supported by theymos. They have started implementing an entirely new economic system for bitcoin against the will of it's users and have blocked any and all attempts to scaling the network in line with the original vision.
Although this comment is ridiculously long, it really only covers the tip of the iceberg. You could write a book on the last two years of bitcoin. The things that have been going on have been mind blowing. One last thing that I think is worth talking about is the u/bashco's claim of vote manipulation.
The users that the video talks about have very very large numbers of downvotes mostly due to them having a very very high chance of being astroturfers. Around about the same time last year when Blockstream came active on the scene every single bitcoin troll disappeared, and I mean literally every single one. In the years before that there were a large number of active anti-bitcoin trolls. They even have an active sub buttcoin. Up until last year you could go down to the bottom of pretty much any thread in bitcoin and see many of the usual trolls who were heavily downvoted for saying something along the lines of "bitcoin is shit", "You guys and your tulips" etc. But suddenly last year they all disappeared. Instead a new type of bitcoin user appeared. Someone who said they were fully in support of bitcoin but they just so happened to support every single thing Blockstream and its employees said and did. They had the exact same tone as the trolls who had disappeared. Their way to talking to people was aggressive, they'd call people names, they had a relatively poor understanding of how bitcoin fundamentally worked. They were extremely argumentative. These users are the majority of the list of that video. When the 10's of thousands of users were censored and expelled from bitcoin they ended up congregating in btc. The strange thing was that the users listed in that video also moved over to btc and spend all day everyday posting troll-like comments and misinformation. Naturally they get heavily downvoted by the real users in btc. They spend their time constantly causing as much drama as possible. At every opportunity they scream about "censorship" in btc while they are happy about the censorship in bitcoin. These people are astroturfers. What someone somewhere worked out, is that all you have to do to take down a community is say that you are on their side. It is an astoundingly effective form of psychological attack.
submitted by CuriousTitmouse to btc [link] [comments]

✅ ChipMixer | Chip Mixer | Best Bitcoin Mixers | Bitcoin Mixer ✅

✅ ChipMixer | Chip Mixer | Best Bitcoin Mixers | Bitcoin Mixer ✅

https://preview.redd.it/6y2syselfnx31.jpg?width=140&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5f567f98be682a043ea1ab99e32223d5da82afad

Introducing ChipMixerMixing reinvented for your privacy


Clearnet link:
https://chipmixer.com/
What makes ChipMixer special?
ChipMixer creates Bitcoin addresses (chips) and funds them with specific sizes. There are chips with 0.001 BTC, 0.002 BTC, 0.004 BTC and so on till 4.096 BTC. When you deposit your Bitcoins, you receive same amount in chips. For example you deposit 0.112 BTC and you receive 0.064 + 0.032 + 0.016. Each chip was funded before your deposit, so there is no link between them and your deposit on blockchain. They are already anonymous. With each chip, you receive its private key, so you can spend them any time you want.
Why us?
We offer the best privacy you can get from Bitcoin mixer.

  • you have full control over mixing - it makes process random
  • outputs are fungible - every chip is exactly the same
  • outputs are faster than inputs - from blockchain perspective, you spend them before sending to mixer
  • output may be higher than input - optional betting inside
  • you can use multiple small inputs to merge into one big output off-chain
  • outputs can be used instantly - private key is yours and you set miner's fee
  • no fee, donation only - pay as much as you want
  • no accounts, no bitcodes to link your inputs
  • optional signed source of funds
  • we wait 48h for your input transaction and we can wait more on request
  • lightweight pages, no javascript required
How to use it with example
Step 1 - deposit
You receive input address. You deposit 0.1 BTC on received address and wait for one confirmation.
Step 2 - mixing
Your 0.1 BTC is exchanged for chips: 0.064 + 0.032 + 0.004.
You click on split button for 0.064 chip exchanging it for two 0.032 chips.
You click on split button for 0.004 chip exchanging it for two 0.002 chips. You click donate on smallest chip. Thank you!
Now you have 3 * 0.032 + 0.002. You click withdraw all.
Step 3 - withdraw
You see list of four private keys. Each marked with its size (3 * 0.032 BTC and 0.002 BTC) and public key. There is no on-chain connection between them and funds you deposited.
You import them into your wallet Electrum wallet and they are ready to be spent.
Total mixing time: 1 blockchain confirmation
Total cost: 0.002 BTC donate. You pay what you want.
Links
Clearnet link:
https://chipmixer.com/
submitted by blueman1025 to u/blueman1025 [link] [comments]

✅ ChipMixer | Chip Mixer | Best Bitcoin Mixers | Bitcoin Mixer ✅

✅ ChipMixer | Chip Mixer | Best Bitcoin Mixers | Bitcoin Mixer ✅

https://preview.redd.it/gc2n532lfnx31.jpg?width=140&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ab7b7e3e9c7003e41f2562824374625c4192f758

Introducing ChipMixerMixing reinvented for your privacy


Clearnet link:
https://chipmixer.com/
What makes ChipMixer special?
ChipMixer creates Bitcoin addresses (chips) and funds them with specific sizes. There are chips with 0.001 BTC, 0.002 BTC, 0.004 BTC and so on till 4.096 BTC. When you deposit your Bitcoins, you receive same amount in chips. For example you deposit 0.112 BTC and you receive 0.064 + 0.032 + 0.016. Each chip was funded before your deposit, so there is no link between them and your deposit on blockchain. They are already anonymous. With each chip, you receive its private key, so you can spend them any time you want.
Why us?
We offer the best privacy you can get from Bitcoin mixer.

  • you have full control over mixing - it makes process random
  • outputs are fungible - every chip is exactly the same
  • outputs are faster than inputs - from blockchain perspective, you spend them before sending to mixer
  • output may be higher than input - optional betting inside
  • you can use multiple small inputs to merge into one big output off-chain
  • outputs can be used instantly - private key is yours and you set miner's fee
  • no fee, donation only - pay as much as you want
  • no accounts, no bitcodes to link your inputs
  • optional signed source of funds
  • we wait 48h for your input transaction and we can wait more on request
  • lightweight pages, no javascript required
How to use it with example
Step 1 - deposit
You receive input address. You deposit 0.1 BTC on received address and wait for one confirmation.
Step 2 - mixing
Your 0.1 BTC is exchanged for chips: 0.064 + 0.032 + 0.004.
You click on split button for 0.064 chip exchanging it for two 0.032 chips.
You click on split button for 0.004 chip exchanging it for two 0.002 chips. You click donate on smallest chip. Thank you!
Now you have 3 * 0.032 + 0.002. You click withdraw all.
Step 3 - withdraw
You see list of four private keys. Each marked with its size (3 * 0.032 BTC and 0.002 BTC) and public key. There is no on-chain connection between them and funds you deposited.
You import them into your wallet Electrum wallet and they are ready to be spent.
Total mixing time: 1 blockchain confirmation
Total cost: 0.002 BTC donate. You pay what you want.
Links
Clearnet link:
https://chipmixer.com/
submitted by blueman1025 to u/blueman1025 [link] [comments]

Top 10 Ways To Make Money With Cryptocurrency By Trading

Top 10 Ways To Make Money With Cryptocurrency By Trading
https://preview.redd.it/wuqdths9eaj51.jpg?width=2400&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=72b078a3339091e0511c612b10ff6877037e0dfe
Cryptocurrencies need no introduction. In more than ten years, it has managed to become one of the most revolutionary changes in the work of digital transactions. However, when it comes to its applications, cryptocurrency has become a key attraction for many investors. When we talk about cryptocurrency, Bitcoin becomes a default choice. Although more than 5000 cryptocurrencies are floating in the market, Bitcoin remains the apple of the eye of many investors. So, here we are going to discuss what are the ten ways of making money with cryptocurrency or Bitcoin.
10 Ways To Make Money Using Cryptocurrency Trading :
1. HODLing- Buy and Hold Bitcoin- This is a simple rule of trading wherein the investor buys Bitcoin or cryptocurrency with an intent to hold it for a long time and then selling it in the future. It is a kind of long-term investment.
2. Bitcoin Arbitrage- In this, the investor buys Bitcoin at a low price from the cheapest exchange and then selling it at a higher price on another exchange. The difference in the price between the two platforms becomes the low-risk profit for the arbitrate trader.
3. Bitcoin futures trading- It allows the traders to assess the pricing of Bitcoin without actually owning the cryptocurrency. It works on betting long or short against the price of Bitcoin, or other cryptocurrencies.
4. Bitcoin solo mining- If you have a setup of a Bitcoin miner, then you can start as a solo-miner. You would need massive hash rates for this.
5. Bitcoin mining pools- It happens when different miners come together to increase the hashpower, it eventually helps in generating Blocks faster as the difficulty becomes more.
6. Bitcoin cloud mining- If you want to start mining in Bitcoin, then there is an option of hiring mining equipment in a remote location. The mining takes place remotely where it is affordable to mine.
7. Bitcoin network marketing- Different companies are offering bitcoin mining investment via structure where people get a commission on referral. These systems combine cryptocurrencies and network marketing.
8. Bitcoin affiliate programs- There are cryptocurrency companies that also give rewards in Bitcoin to the people who refer to a new customer. You can join any Bitcoin affiliate program and connect with other users on social media. For example, you can join the Bitcoin affiliate program, and then create YouTube videos about the product.
9. Bitcoin faucets- These are websites where you pay in Satoshis ( the smallest fraction of a bitcoin, 0.00000001 BTC)to complete a task like downloading the apps, completing the survey, or watching ads or videos.
10. Binary Trading with bitcoin- These have been there in the world of finance for a long time, and now it is moving in the world of cryptocurrencies. For example, you have two options to choose for Bitcoin price is $3000 now (at 10 AM), or you can invest in price, which is more than $3000 by 6 PM. Say the price of Bitcoin is higher than $3000 at 5 PM, then you can sell it at this time.
Conclusion- These are a few of the ways that help you make money and earn more with Bitcoin or cryptocurrency.
submitted by Blockchain_org to BlockchainStartups [link] [comments]

[Paracosm Discord] Hans's Inspiring Conv: Tangle Inside

2/6
Disclaimer:
This is my editing, so there could be some misunderstandings.
Anyone who wants to read everything should go to the 'spec' of Paracosm discord.
IMHO, Hans's philosophy and motivation is worth sharing widely.



Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 7:57
People are more motivated then ever

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:02
the point is that the IF is not going to be there forever - its not meant to
having a self sustainable ecosystem is very important for the maturity of the protocol

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:03
No it's not
if IF would cease to exist tomorrow - it would be finished by the people working for the IF anyway
I am 100% sure
and if i would have to do it alone ...

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:05
we can all do it together - and we are actually doing it already
hornet and goshimmer have VERY close ties
they are really good friends and very capable coders
its an honor to work with them

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:06
[when do you reckon the shift to binary will take place?]
its being merged in goshimmer tomorrow :smile:

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:14
[about Multiverse]
the last statements of popov was that it "might work"
he still has some concerns
i guess he still tends to think the chances of it not working as bigger than the chances of it working
I am 100% sure it works - but maybe its on me to prove that with a fully functional prototype.

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:17
My goal is to show a prototype being able to process 10 million tps by the mid of this year - we will see if I can pull this off
maybe time will be rare, considering the parallel work on coordicide
maybe I should aim for end of 2020 instead

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:19
of course it includes sharding
that whole point of IOTA is sharding
and a completely new form of sharding

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:19
[why 10m TPS?]
its just a random number
some kind of goal post
so you can process the entirety of bitcoins history in 1minute and 30 seconds?
would be a nice thing

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:21
coordicide and multiverse would essentially use the same sharding principles
I hope that we can share more on that soon
Oh its quite concrete
we are starting to write math papers about it already

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:23
FPC is perfectly fine for sharding
you have to forget the discrete sharding world of blockchains where you just make n copies of the same thing
its very different


Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:30
I would LOVE to share that with you but maybe just wait a but longer - we will be more open about this pretty soon
let's just say that we still have some aces in our sleeves

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:49
nope
I am completely new in crypto but I am pretty sure that some people might "know me from before"
if they would know what I did before

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 8:57
dude the IF has reached a stage where it would survive without anbybody
I could drop dead tomorrow and the IF would continue, same goes for David or anybody else

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:00
all the corporates and everything ... it might not be fully reflected in the price yet but IOTA has a really really bright future

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:01
I think we are starting to see a pretty bullish sentiment around IOTA lately
I only hope that its due to our increased transparency with a clear roadmap and everyhting, and not just some random fluke in the prices
It would just feel much more "rewarding" to be a consequence of our efforts :joy:

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:05
i am buying more IOTA every month : was very happy about the low prices
but I can understand that if you just "have to believe" and have no insight about the actual progress, then these prices can feel more concerning than a "bargain"

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:13
Do you really expect a guy working on IOTA to not be bullish about the tech and everything?
I am not in IOTA for the moneyzzz

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:18
if you are asking for investment advice, then I am most probably the worst person to ask
as my trades in crypto have always been horrible

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:20
I didn't have the chance to be around in the ICO days so I need to take what's left

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:27
I don't know man - everybody that I know is not willing to sell

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:35
Yassin is the proof that "reputation" is worth something
A man of honor - my deepest respect to you man
People who stick to their word and can be trusted are sadly a rare thing in today's world

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:39
I anyway think that we have way too much tribalism in crypto
people should really stop praising "people and projects" and instead start to praise ideas and concepts

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:43
I mean I get the whole concept of having a single currency and shit, but if the tech is bad? I mean this is the first time in the history of humans that we can "design" the very foundation of our social and economical layer
why would we not go for the best available tech?
bitcoin was "a breakthrough" when it was released
and it helped to kickstart a whole field of research
but its clearly not the best possible solution

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:47
ultimately the best tech will win
just look at bitcoins dominance
its fading long term
sure it was time for a correction from the 2017 run of alts

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:47
but the overall trend is pretty clear
bitcoins days are numbered

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:54
maybe I can leak one thing about IOTA's sharding solution without giving away too much: Every single node can individually decide how much data it wants to process - so you can have very very resource-constrained nodes like sensors and stuff in the same network as nodes with hundreds of cores and they will be able to work together seamlessly
there will essentially be no "minimum hardware requirements" for a node (of course you have "some" requirements to even be able to run some kind of logic)

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:56
We are on the forefront of research when it comes to VDF's but its not really related
VDFs would maybe be a way to replace PoW in the future as a rate control mechanism

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 9:58
you don't need big nodes
you can be as big as you want to be
but naturally some nodes will have more power than others

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:01
possible - the whole mana system is based on "reputation", if you run a reliable cluster of nodes that people are willing to use, then you can earn mana
and since mana decides how many transactions you can issue, you can of course "allow others to use your resources" for money
so operating a reliable node cluster could be sth that people might do "for a living" in the future
maybe it would be best to build up a reputation already today

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:03
if you have funds in the network, then you will generate more than enough mana to have enough "shares" in the network to use it
for free
but if anybody wants to just piggyback on the network without holding tokens, then he might have to pay a "fee"

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:05
if you want to send a lot of data transactions, then you better have some tokens
I mean its just fair, right?
you don't have any stake in the network but you wanna use it? then pay for it
but people who have funds in the network can use it for free

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:07
i think ultimately the community will provide a plugin for the nodes, where you can "automatically" rent your excess reputation for some income

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:08
[what would the income be ?]
tokens
IOTA

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:09
by the people who want to use the network more than what their token holding would allow them to
so they rent "mana" from the people who have it

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:10
the internet took off when flat-rate emerged
and prices became predictable
the same is true for crypto

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:11
thats why companies like IOTA so much ... it creates a platform that has "predictable" prices
any mining based crypto will never be able to offer the same
Beeing feeless is not just a "funny feature", its the key to mass adoption

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:14
If I run a node and have funds in the network, then why would I pay anybody anything? I am supporting the network already by using it

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:16
Yeah we are using "mana 2" now which is also the one that is implemented in the goshimmer mana package
the formulas are going to change a bit tho
we had like 16 different versions of mana with all very different implications on game theory and code

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:18
but serguei is the expert when it comes to game theory and we are pretty confident that we have chosen the correct survivor

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:19
[The mana implementation does seem like the slipperiest slope]
it uses a few economic theories from the early 20th century (from silvio gesell) by having smth like a "demurrage function"
so the rich dont get richer
its software - if any design decision turns out to be problematic, you patch it

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:20
[So it’s hard to maintain a high mana]
its not like you have to live with it for thousands of years like in our current FIAT system
if you make it right from the start, the rich will never become that powerful that they could even dare to fork

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:22
you are "RENTING" out your excess resources
that doesn't mean that you will broadcast everything unseen
If somebody tries to use your node to perform an attack you will just ignore it
of course you might "lose the fees" that they would be willing to pay you to perform this attack,
but ultimately you will have to decide what is more valuable to you
the few cents of IOTA you earn or your "reputation / mana"

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:25
the nodes will perform all of the sanity checks, so they don't "accidently" take part in an attack of course
the point is that its a voting system based on mana
if I use your node to "issue a transaction",
then I maybe pay you for issuing this tx
but your "opinion on that tx" is independent of that

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:29
actually I even think that the whole coordicide principles especially in connection with the sharding are very much in line with cfb's initial vision - and I am actually a bit sad that he never really dared to honestly look into them

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:29
I was even thinking about "naming" the multiverse "cfbs vision" once
maybe its more (pauls's vision) than cfbs vision
paul handy was one of the other early developers of IOTA btw.
and a very very smart person I have to say
a lot of the ideas that we are currently pursuing go back to his line of thinking

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:32
the infamous "ontology principles"
the ultimate goal is to be able to run "anything" on the tangle - not just value transfers but literally anything, event remotely related to DLT's
I envision IOTA being a general purpose DLT platform
pretty much like TCP/IP was for the internet

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:36
I introduced "broadcasts" a few days ago as a new concept that is the equivalent of UDP messages

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:49
I think that one of the things where cfb and me disagree regarding the "vision of IOTA" is that he think thats we should "finalize" the protocol as soon as possible (or "set it in stone" as he likes to call it), so hardware manufacturer can start to build hardware, whereas I think that it makes much more sense for it to be something like an "open evolving standard" that is so flexible that you can literally build whatever the fuck you want based on this protocol.

The internet wouldn't have been the internet, if it would have "just" been for sending scientific messages between researchers.
I can not anticipate and know what humans might do with DLT in the future, so limiting myself to "only value transfers" is IMHO the wrong decision.
for something to be successful, it needs to be able to "model" everything that could possibly exist

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:51
IOTA will be able to run "anything" on top of it - even "virtual instances of other cryptocurrencies"
and its not going to be some quirky slow emulation - it would most probably even be faster and more reliable than when being implemented without it

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:52
similar to "INTEL inside" you will most probably see sth like "Tangle inside" soon

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:54
"any application" running on top of the tangle (MAM, DID, Qubic, Matrix ... you name them) would ALWAYS have to be able to process IOTA value transfers
THAT's what will give the token a value

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:55
if everybody can already "speak the same language" anyway, then people will also use that language to communicate
which means that people will use the IOTA token to transfer value
so we don't need to "force ourselves" on others - they will come by themselves
because its the only thing that makes sense

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 10:57
[so Hans, $10 EOY still ?]
if btc stays where it is?
hard to achieve i'd say
most probably not
it always takes some time for people to "wake up"
dunno maybe it goes fast
most weak hands are gone in IOTA

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:00
But seriously guys ... the price of course is interesting but if we are able to pull this off, then this will be the start of a new form of society
it will affect everything
the way we interact .... even the way we behave towards each other
I am not even sure if you need to be "rich" in that kind of society
Star trek sounds like a nice vision


Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:20
[once IOTA is completely implemented, its gonna be a matter of energy consumption optimization race I guess?]
ultimately, yes
whatever crypto is going to be the "cheapest" one to "operate" will win

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:22
BUT that is at the same time "expressive" enough to not have "niches" for weird competitors, that claim to be even a "little bit better" in one of the aspects
it needs to be the best possible solution that humans are most probably able to come up with

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:23
if even the smallest something can be improved, then it should become part of the core rather than a competing project
not having miners and being able to "upgrade" whenever it is necessary, is what will give IOTA power
not setting stuff in stone today

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:29
I guess what fascinates me the most about IOTA is that people have a different kind of philosophy - in crypto people are usually sharing the mindset of "let's destroy the banks ... or .... the FED ... or whoever they consider to be their enemy
IOTA for me is not so much about "destroying somebody else" rather than "creating something new"

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:30
But the "mindset and motivation" makes all the difference
And I feel like large parts of the community "understand and share" that vision

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:34
there are plenty of "problems" where DLT is not the right answer
but there are most probably also quite a few that we haven't even thought about, yet
that go way beyond just "finance"

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:38
[Has IF any plans for anonymous transactions Hans?]
it's current not our main point of research but I would say ultimately yes
the fact thats its feeless make "mixing" funds a very feasible solution
But even on top of that (like zero knowledge proofs and stuff) If there is a use case, then you should be able to do it with IOTA.
that's what I mean with "general purpose DLT" platform
whatever is possible should be doable with the protocol - not "just" IoT value transfers

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:42
everything you could most probably think of
the same way as TCP/IP allows you to play computer games, send emails, or watch streams

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오전 11:48
tomorrow I start merging the first ledger-related stuff into the development branch
from the outside it will most probably look like any other day : but starting to work on the "final version" which is supposed to be ready end of Q1 is a big milestone for us
2 months left

Hans Moog [IF]어제 오후 12:04
100% agree - let's finish this shit!
we have "talked" for quite a while - the coming months, we will have to show what we "have"
submitted by btlkhs to Iota [link] [comments]

✅ ChipMixer | Chip Mixer | Best Bitcoin Mixers | Bitcoin Mixer ✅

✅ ChipMixer | Chip Mixer | Best Bitcoin Mixers | Bitcoin Mixer ✅

https://preview.redd.it/mkwb2b7kfnx31.jpg?width=140&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ea1426aba110a1bbce7600353bf299c808878eb5

Introducing ChipMixerMixing reinvented for your privacy


Clearnet link:
https://chipmixer.com/
What makes ChipMixer special?
ChipMixer creates Bitcoin addresses (chips) and funds them with specific sizes. There are chips with 0.001 BTC, 0.002 BTC, 0.004 BTC and so on till 4.096 BTC. When you deposit your Bitcoins, you receive same amount in chips. For example you deposit 0.112 BTC and you receive 0.064 + 0.032 + 0.016. Each chip was funded before your deposit, so there is no link between them and your deposit on blockchain. They are already anonymous. With each chip, you receive its private key, so you can spend them any time you want.
Why us?
We offer the best privacy you can get from Bitcoin mixer.

  • you have full control over mixing - it makes process random
  • outputs are fungible - every chip is exactly the same
  • outputs are faster than inputs - from blockchain perspective, you spend them before sending to mixer
  • output may be higher than input - optional betting inside
  • you can use multiple small inputs to merge into one big output off-chain
  • outputs can be used instantly - private key is yours and you set miner's fee
  • no fee, donation only - pay as much as you want
  • no accounts, no bitcodes to link your inputs
  • optional signed source of funds
  • we wait 48h for your input transaction and we can wait more on request
  • lightweight pages, no javascript required
How to use it with example
Step 1 - deposit
You receive input address. You deposit 0.1 BTC on received address and wait for one confirmation.
Step 2 - mixing
Your 0.1 BTC is exchanged for chips: 0.064 + 0.032 + 0.004.
You click on split button for 0.064 chip exchanging it for two 0.032 chips.
You click on split button for 0.004 chip exchanging it for two 0.002 chips. You click donate on smallest chip. Thank you!
Now you have 3 * 0.032 + 0.002. You click withdraw all.
Step 3 - withdraw
You see list of four private keys. Each marked with its size (3 * 0.032 BTC and 0.002 BTC) and public key. There is no on-chain connection between them and funds you deposited.
You import them into your wallet Electrum wallet and they are ready to be spent.
Total mixing time: 1 blockchain confirmation
Total cost: 0.002 BTC donate. You pay what you want.
Links
Clearnet link:
https://chipmixer.com/
submitted by blueman1025 to u/blueman1025 [link] [comments]

Bitcoin for NOOBs looking for feedback

I get a lot of questions about bitcoin from friends and family members. I wrote this up and to the best of my knowledge covers everything a NOOB should know about bitcoin. That being said I probably made some mistakes and welcome any feedback from the community I could get on cleaning up the verbiage. Thanks in advance!
Bitcoin For NOOBS Peer to peer digital currency that is scares. It is digitally secure through cryptography and decentralized through open protocol mining principals.
Peer to peer: USD: paper dollars can be exchanged peer to peer but any other form of USD exchange requires your banks permission to use your own money. In fact if you try to pull out too much paper USD your bank may question you.
BTC: Can be exchanged with no middle man. No bank or government permissions needed for any amount and can be exchanged across the global at any time.
Scarsity USD: Print more money just write an IOU to the banks no big deal. Inflationary.
BTC: The number of BTCs that will ever exists is a fixed number it will never change. Deflationary.
Cryptography: USD: With USD the “keys” to your wallet lie with your identity. If I can gain access to your identity I can gain access to your funds. BTC: Your identity does not travel with the coin ledger. Stealing your identity does not mean your funds can be accessed.
Decentralization USD: The federal reserve banks are owned by unknown individuals. Make no mistake the illuminate exists. When the fed prints money the write those unknown individuals and IOU. Out of thin air wealth is created to individuals not the government. You don’t know who they are and never will. BTC: Anyone can mine bitcoin. You dedicate your hardware to mining aka processing transactions. It costs you money to run that hardware. Your reward for your hardware costs is bitcoin. The mathematical principals behind bitcoin do a check for how many mining machines decided if a transaction is real or not. 51% wins. The more bitcoin is used and the more people that dedicate hardware to mining the more digitally secure it becomes.
Bitcoins case for calling it gold 2.0: Currently bitcoin is not acting like the USD but instead acting more like gold a store of value. Long ago before the dollar gold was the standard. The government attempted to issue greenbacks however no one wanted them since gold was the tradition and was scares in supply. The government decided to back the dollar with federal gold reserves. Federal reserves no longer exist as they once have in fact if you invest in gold via the stock market there is a slim chance it is backed by any type of gold reserve it’s really just all digital money for the most part now a days. While bitcoin is truly limited in supply and scares not only is it a great store of value but it has even more use than gold. It can be exchanged electronically peer to peer across the globe and used via smart contracts etc. A quick google search say that the total value of gold in the world is at roughly 7.5trillon dollars. Gold does has more use than just a store of value via jewlery electronics etc but let’s compare the numbers side by side.
Gold 7.5 trillion BTC market cap 170.5 billion
If you agree BTC is a better store of value or at least a decent store of value since it’s truly limited in supply with more usability then it’s easy to see how much upside potential is left on the table. As the fed continues to put out more money during these economic hard times they are causing inflation while BTC has just undergone a halving aka it’s harder for miners to produce a bitcoin reward meaning deflation. Bitcoin is the perfect place for you to store that big fat government stimulus check if you don’t need the money for awhile.
Edit: added these sections based on feedback from friends.
Dollars and cents: USD: One dollar can be broken down into .01 dollars or 1 cent. This is the smallest unit of measure in USD. BTC: 1 Bitcoin can be broken down into .00000001 bitcoins or 1 sats which is short for Satoshi’s. 1 sat is the smallest unit of measure in terms of BTC.
Owning Bitcoin: You can own bitcoin a few different ways but we will talk about two methods in general. Owning coins through a 3rd party such as Coinbase or Robinhood vs owning your coins via your own hardware wallet. 3rd Party: The platform you use can hold some control over you and limit your funds etc just like a bank. They will take additional fees for each transaction you place etc. This really isn’t what bitcoin was intended for but it’s how most people use it currently. Hardware wallet: You own the currency on a hardware wallet like a Ledger wallet etc. there is no middle man. You own the coin and the “keys”
submitted by JTCampbellJr to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

✅ ChipMixer | Chip Mixer | Best Bitcoin Mixers | Bitcoin Mixer ✅

✅ ChipMixer | Chip Mixer | Best Bitcoin Mixers | Bitcoin Mixer ✅

https://preview.redd.it/0ijlhrpkfnx31.jpg?width=140&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=94dfaea68abe95cd9213308bdf5fd0891a052830

Introducing ChipMixerMixing reinvented for your privacy


Clearnet link:
https://chipmixer.com/
What makes ChipMixer special?
ChipMixer creates Bitcoin addresses (chips) and funds them with specific sizes. There are chips with 0.001 BTC, 0.002 BTC, 0.004 BTC and so on till 4.096 BTC. When you deposit your Bitcoins, you receive same amount in chips. For example you deposit 0.112 BTC and you receive 0.064 + 0.032 + 0.016. Each chip was funded before your deposit, so there is no link between them and your deposit on blockchain. They are already anonymous. With each chip, you receive its private key, so you can spend them any time you want.
Why us?
We offer the best privacy you can get from Bitcoin mixer.

  • you have full control over mixing - it makes process random
  • outputs are fungible - every chip is exactly the same
  • outputs are faster than inputs - from blockchain perspective, you spend them before sending to mixer
  • output may be higher than input - optional betting inside
  • you can use multiple small inputs to merge into one big output off-chain
  • outputs can be used instantly - private key is yours and you set miner's fee
  • no fee, donation only - pay as much as you want
  • no accounts, no bitcodes to link your inputs
  • optional signed source of funds
  • we wait 48h for your input transaction and we can wait more on request
  • lightweight pages, no javascript required
How to use it with example
Step 1 - deposit
You receive input address. You deposit 0.1 BTC on received address and wait for one confirmation.
Step 2 - mixing
Your 0.1 BTC is exchanged for chips: 0.064 + 0.032 + 0.004.
You click on split button for 0.064 chip exchanging it for two 0.032 chips.
You click on split button for 0.004 chip exchanging it for two 0.002 chips. You click donate on smallest chip. Thank you!
Now you have 3 * 0.032 + 0.002. You click withdraw all.
Step 3 - withdraw
You see list of four private keys. Each marked with its size (3 * 0.032 BTC and 0.002 BTC) and public key. There is no on-chain connection between them and funds you deposited.
You import them into your wallet Electrum wallet and they are ready to be spent.
Total mixing time: 1 blockchain confirmation
Total cost: 0.002 BTC donate. You pay what you want.
Links
Clearnet link:
https://chipmixer.com/
submitted by blueman1025 to u/blueman1025 [link] [comments]

✅ ChipMixer | Chip Mixer | Best Bitcoin Mixers | Bitcoin Mixer ✅

✅ ChipMixer | Chip Mixer | Best Bitcoin Mixers | Bitcoin Mixer ✅
https://preview.redd.it/yb6dwckgfnx31.jpg?width=140&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a3a6cd9dc801719f59ea073b51b830dcf436b682

Introducing ChipMixerMixing reinvented for your privacy


Clearnet link:
https://chipmixer.com/
What makes ChipMixer special?
ChipMixer creates Bitcoin addresses (chips) and funds them with specific sizes. There are chips with 0.001 BTC, 0.002 BTC, 0.004 BTC and so on till 4.096 BTC. When you deposit your Bitcoins, you receive same amount in chips. For example you deposit 0.112 BTC and you receive 0.064 + 0.032 + 0.016. Each chip was funded before your deposit, so there is no link between them and your deposit on blockchain. They are already anonymous. With each chip, you receive its private key, so you can spend them any time you want.
Why us?
We offer the best privacy you can get from Bitcoin mixer.

  • you have full control over mixing - it makes process random
  • outputs are fungible - every chip is exactly the same
  • outputs are faster than inputs - from blockchain perspective, you spend them before sending to mixer
  • output may be higher than input - optional betting inside
  • you can use multiple small inputs to merge into one big output off-chain
  • outputs can be used instantly - private key is yours and you set miner's fee
  • no fee, donation only - pay as much as you want
  • no accounts, no bitcodes to link your inputs
  • optional signed source of funds
  • we wait 48h for your input transaction and we can wait more on request
  • lightweight pages, no javascript required
How to use it with example
Step 1 - deposit
You receive input address. You deposit 0.1 BTC on received address and wait for one confirmation.
Step 2 - mixing
Your 0.1 BTC is exchanged for chips: 0.064 + 0.032 + 0.004.
You click on split button for 0.064 chip exchanging it for two 0.032 chips.
You click on split button for 0.004 chip exchanging it for two 0.002 chips. You click donate on smallest chip. Thank you!
Now you have 3 * 0.032 + 0.002. You click withdraw all.
Step 3 - withdraw
You see list of four private keys. Each marked with its size (3 * 0.032 BTC and 0.002 BTC) and public key. There is no on-chain connection between them and funds you deposited.
You import them into your wallet Electrum wallet and they are ready to be spent.
Total mixing time: 1 blockchain confirmation
Total cost: 0.002 BTC donate. You pay what you want.
Links
Clearnet link:
https://chipmixer.com/
submitted by blueman1025 to u/blueman1025 [link] [comments]

What's the chance of Bitcoin becoming a real currency.

There are a lot of bitcoin lovers and people who are certain bitcoin will replace all fiat.
But these 3 points make me doubt it and wondered what you all have to say about this: 1. Bitcoin can be transferred to old accounts/accounts without access anymore (result: loss in BTC). 2. The smallest we can go if all fiat is transferred to btc (all 21mil btc): 900000000000000000(total money supply)/(100000000(1 satoshi)*21000000(all btc) = 428 dollars per satoshi (not so useful). 3. If all miners stop at the last halving (because it's not profitable anymore) a 51% attack is literally doable by "anyone"?
submitted by kommokam to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

A Brief History of BitCoin

A Brief History of BitCoin


What is Bitcoin? | How It Work?

A Brief History of BitCoin

The virtual currency was intended to develop peer-to-peer transactions; it doesn’t need a go-between, the exchange of private information, or transaction fees.

What is Bitcoin?

Bitcoin is virtual money or cryptocurrency, that’s measured by a decentralized network of operators and isn’t straight subject to the impulses of central banking decisions or national governments. There are hundreds of cryptocurrencies in lively use today, Bitcoin is through far the most general and widely used – the nearby cryptocurrency equal to traditional, state-minted coins.

How Bitcoin Works

Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency since it’s supported by source code that customs highly composite procedures to prevent illegal duplication or creation of Bitcoin elements. The code’s fundamental principles, known as cryptography, are based on innovative scientific and computer engineering values. It’s practically impossible to stop Bitcoin’s source code and operate the currency’s supply.
Though it was headed by other virtual coins, Bitcoin is identified as the first modern cryptocurrency. That’s since Bitcoin is the initial to blend some key structures shared by most after created cryptocurrencies.

User Anonymity

Intense privacy safeties are seared into Bitcoin’s source code. The method is intended to openly record Bitcoin dealings and other related data without revealing the individuality of the groups involved. As a substitute, Bitcoin users are recognized by public keys or numerical codes that find them to additional users, and occasionally pseudonymous handles or usernames.

Bitcoin Exchanges

Bitcoin exchanges permit users to change Bitcoin parts for authorization currencies, such as the U.S. dollar and euro, at flexible exchange charges. Many Bitcoin relations also exchange Bitcoin components for other cryptocurrencies, with less popular substitutes that can’t straight be replaced for fiat coins. Most Bitcoin exchanges take a cut, naturally less than 1%, of each deal’s value.
Bitcoin exchanges certify that the Bitcoin market leftovers liquid, set their value qualified to traditional money – and allowing pouches to profit from the assumption on variations in that value.

BlockChain

Bitcoin’s blockchain is dynamic to its function. The blockchain is a public, spread record of all prior Bitcoin communications, which are kept in collections known as blocks. Each node of Bitcoin’s network – the server farms and positions, run by individuals or sets known as miners, whose hard work to produce new Bitcoin elements product in the recording and verification of Bitcoin dealings, and the episodic creation of new blocks – holds an identical record of Bitcoin’s blockchain.
Private Keys
Every Bitcoin handler has at smallest one private key, which is an entire number between 1 and 78 numbers in length. Separate users can have many unnamed handles, each with its private key. Private keys approve their owners’ characters and permit them to occupy or receive Bitcoin. Without them, handlers can’t whole transactions – they can’t access their properties until they improve the matching key. When a key is misplaced for good, the matching holdings change into a sort of everlasting limbo and can’t be improved.

Wallets

Real Bitcoin units are kept in “wallets” – secure cloud storing locations with superior information approving their owners (Bitcoin users) as the protectors of the Bitcoin units controlled within. However wallets like Coinbase, in theory, defend against the stealing of Bitcoin elements that aren’t currently being used, they’re exposed to hacking – mainly public wallets used by Bitcoin connections, online marketplaces, and specific websites that occur exclusively to store Bitcoin wallets known as “wallet services.”
Miners
Miners play an important role in the Bitcoin environment. As guards of the blockchain, they save the entire Bitcoin community truthful and indirectly provide the currency’s value. Miners are entities or cooperative governments with access to influential computers, often kept at remote, secretly owned “farms.” They do incredibly complex scientific tasks to new Bitcoin, which they then keep or change for fiat currency.

Modes of Bitcoin

  • Theft Private Keys.
  • Misusing Wallet Vulnerabilities
  • Functioning Fraudulent Exchanges and Savings Funds.
  • Attacking Authentic Exchanges Directly.
  • Aggressive Dark Web Marketplaces.

How to Get Bitcoin

There are three key ways people get Bitcoins.
  • You can purchase Bitcoins using ‘real’ money.
  • You can retail things and let persons pay with Bitcoins.
  • Developed using a computer.

Advantages of Using Bitcoin

  • Better Fluidity Comparative to Other currencies
  • Increasing the payment method
  • Worldwide Transactions Easier Than Even Currencies
  • Usually Lower Transaction Charges
  • Secrecy and Privacy Relative to Old Currencies
  • Individuality from Politically aware Agents and Creators
  • In-built Shortage

Disadvantages of Using Bitcoin

  • Exposure to Bitcoin-specific Tricks and Fraud
  • Black Market Motion May Damage Repute and Usefulness
  • Vulnerable to High Price Instability
  • No Chargebacks or Repayments
  • Possible to Be Replaced by Greater Cryptocurrency
  • Environmental Ills of Bitcoin Mining
submitted by Satawareus to u/Satawareus [link] [comments]

Test post

TH = 1012 = 10004 hashes_per_second EH = 1018 = 10006 hashes_per_second
21.113
0.101 daily USD per TH/s
116.73 EH/s
So I was discussing this last week and honestly it all felt too simple, so I'm trying to get some stronger counterpoints to this argument. Goes something like this.
You have some pool miner that wants to do a 51% attack. Lets assume the attack has three phases, the first phase is to try to accumulate 51% of the hashing power, next is the accumulation of more hashing power by ejecting other pools from through reorg. Finally when they aquired enough mining power they could blacklist exchange hotwallets or all manner of nefariousness. Lets further assume that everyone will act purely in their own self interest. For simplicity lets call the attacker "Spectre Pool".

Accumulation Phase

Assuming Spectre Pool can hit something like 41% of the hashing power, the first goal is to accumulate more resources to hit 51%. Since pool mining is a commodity market, all Spectre has to do in this imaginary world is offer more than the market rate. Since they are already at 41% hashrate, they need to entice another 10% of the market to come to their pool. The obvious way to do this would be to offer a "new customer bonus" or something like that. Some promotion where they pay 1% above market price for the hashing power of pool members. So, given a network hashrate of 116.73 EH and a market rate of 0.101 USD/TH per day, the cost they would have to bear to offer a 1% promotion to entice 10% of the network would be:
116.73_EH / 0.101_USD/TH * 10% * 1% = 1,155,742 USD per day for each 1% "bonus"
So, assuming they were willing to spend that much on "marketing", and that all miners worked in their own self interest, eventually they could lure enough miners over to achive 51%. Once they hit this threahold they could scale back on the "marketing" and thus reduce their daily burn.

Acceleration phase

Once at 51%, the next attack of Spectre will be to put their smallest competitor out of buisness. Lets call that the "Bond Pool", and pretend that Bond has 1.5% of the network hashing power. To put Bond out of buisness, with 51%, Spectere will need to reorg whenever Bond wins a block. By reorging to a chain without Bond, this will put Spectre one block behind and they will need to catch up. Once the reorg begins, Spectre will need to produce the longest chain on its own while starting one block behind. So we need to determine how long (statisticly) it will take Specter to produce an n+1 blocks and compare that to how long (statisticly) with take Bond to produce another block.
Although this can be hammered out iterive calculations, a better approach will be an algebraic solution. Lets walk through the equations:
You can put the following into a GeoGebra CAS calculator to substitute and simplify the equations
solve(n*m = s*(n+1), n) M = 1/2-d S = 1/2+d m = t/M s = t/S solve(n*m = s*(n+1), d) n = s/(m-s) b = m*M/p solve(b = s*(n+1),p)
This will produce the following equations for the values we are interested in.
m(t,d): t*(1/2-d) # from `m` define s(t,d): t*(1/2-d) # from `s` define n(s,m): s/(m-s) # from `n` solve d(n): 1/(4*n+2) # from `d` solve p(d): 2*d # from `p` solve b(t,p): t/p # from `b` define
Here's a table
n d p m s b
25 0.98% 1.96% 20.40 19.62 510
20 1.22% 2.44% 20.50 19.52 410
15 1.61% 3.23% 20.67 19.38 310
10 2.38% 4.76% 21 19.09 210
5 4.55% 9.09% 22 18.33 110
4 5.56% 11.11% 22.50 18 90
3 7.14% 14.29% 23.33 17.50 70
2 10% 20% 25 16.67 50
1 16.67% 33.33% 30 15 30
solve(nm = s(n+1), d) n = s/(m-s) b = m*M/p
``` Tb = The avg time between blocks won by Bond durring the reorg Ts = The avg time for Spectre to produce a block durring the reorg Tm = The avg time for the main chain to produce a block durring the reorg n = The number of blocks Specter will need to reorg
Tb = 10_min / 49% / 3% = 10.89 Hrs Ts = 10_min / 51% = 19.61 Min Tm = 10_min / 49% = 20.41 Min
Solve for the amount of blocks Specter can reorg Tmn > Ts(n+1) Tnn > Tsn + Ts n > Ts/(Tn - Ts) n > 24.5
Therefore: Spectre can produce 26 blocks faster than the main chain can produce 25. Specter has to win the reorg before Bond produces another block
Assert: Ts * (n+1) < Tb 19.61_min * 26 < 10.89_hrs 8.50_hrs < 10.89_hrs ```
So once Spectre reaches 51% he has enough hashing power to prevent any of Bonds blocks from being included. Spectre can win a reorg (statistically) every 8.5 hrs and Bond can only produce a block (statisticly) every 10.89 hours. So once this attack starts, Spectre simply flashes his promotion to lure the miners in the Bond pool (who are receiving no reward) over to the Spectre pool. If he only gets one third of them, then he can increase his influence to 52%
Doing the same math again, with 52% Spectre can ice out any pool who has up to 7% of the hashing. Then running the promotion, Spectre will try to get 40% of the "homeless miners". Now Spectre's power grows to 55% giving him the power to ice out 16% of his competitors. This can cascade on and on until Spectre is the only public pool left.
1 - All "hashes" are hashes per second 2 - TH = 1012 or 10004 hashes per second 3 - EH = 1018 or 10006 hashes per second 4 - Assume a market rate of 0.101 USD / TH / day 5 - Assume an average daily network hashrate of 116.73 EH
``` solve(nm = s(n+1), n) M = 1/2-d S = 1/2+d m = t/M s = t/S solve(nm = s(n+1), d) n = s/(m-s) b = mM/p solve(b = s(n+1),p)
m(t,d): t(1/2-d) # from m define s(t,d): t(1/2-d) # from s define n(s,m): s/(m-s) # from n solve d(n): 1/(4n+2) # from d solve p(d): 2d # from p solve b(t,p): t/p # from b define ```
submitted by brianddk to brianddk [link] [comments]

Actual cost of a 51% attach, $10.2 million

So I was discussing this last week and honestly it all felt too simple, so I'm trying to get some stronger counterpoints to this argument. Goes something like this.
You have some pool miner that wants to do a 51% attack. Lets assume the attack has three phases, the first phase is to try to accumulate 51% of the hashing power, next is the accumulation of more hashing power by ejecting other pools from through reorg. Finally when they aquired enough mining power they could blacklist exchange hotwallets or all manner of nefariousness. Lets further assume that everyone will act purely in their own self interest. For simplicity lets call the attacker "Spectre Pool".

Accumulation Phase

Assuming Spectre Pool can hit something like 41% of the hashing power, the first goal is to accumulate more resources to hit 51%. Since pool mining is a commodity market, all Spectre has to do in this imaginary world is offer more than the market rate. Since they are already at 41% hashrate, they need to entice another 10% of the market to come to their pool. The obvious way to do this would be to offer a "new customer bonus" or something like that. Some promotion where they pay 1% above market price for the hashing power of pool members. So, given a network hashrate of 116.73 EH and a market rate of 0.101 USD/TH per day, the cost they would have to bear to offer a 1% promotion to entice 10% of the network would be:
116.73_EH / 0.101_USD/TH * 10% * 1% = 1,155,742 USD per day for each 1% "bonus"
So, assuming they were willing to spend that much on "marketing", and that all miners worked in their own self interest, eventually they could lure enough miners over to achive 51%. Once they hit this threshold they could scale back on the "marketing" and thus reduce their daily burn.

Acceleration phase

Once at 51%, the next attack of Spectre will be to put their smallest competitor out of buisness. Lets call that the "Bond Pool", and pretend that Bond has 1.5% of the network hashing power. To put Bond out of buisness, with 51%, Spectere will need to reorg whenever Bond wins a block. By reorging to a chain without Bond, this will put Spectre one block behind and they will need to catch up. Once the reorg begins, Spectre will need to produce the longest chain on its own while starting one block behind. So we need to determine how long (statisticly) it will take Specter to produce n+1 blocks and compare that to how long (statisticly) it will take Bond to win one block.
Although this can be hammered out in an iterive calculation, a better approach will be an algebraic solution. Lets walk through the equations:
You can put the following into a GeoGebra CAS calculator to substitute and simplify the equations
solve(n*m = s*(n+1), n) M = 1/2-d S = 1/2+d m = t/M s = t/S solve(n*m = s*(n+1), d) n = s/(m-s) b = m*M/p solve(b = s*(n+1),p)
This will produce the following equations for the values we are interested in.
m(t,d): t/(1/2-d) # from `m` define s(t,d): t/(1/2-d) # from `s` define n(s,m): s/(m-s) # from `n` solve d(n): 1/(4*n+2) # from `d` solve p(d): 2*d # from `p` solve b(t,p): t/p # from `b` define
Plugging the equations into excel produces the following (assuming t=10)
n d p m s b
25 0.98% 1.96% 20.40 19.62 510
20 1.22% 2.44% 20.50 19.52 410
15 1.61% 3.23% 20.67 19.38 310
10 2.38% 4.76% 21 19.09 210
5 4.55% 9.09% 22 18.33 110
4 5.56% 11.11% 22.50 18 90
3 7.14% 14.29% 23.33 17.50 70
2 10% 20% 25 16.67 50
1 16.67% 33.33% 30 15 30
So once d=0.98%, Specture will have 50.98% of the hashing power, allowing him to eject 1.96% of all blocks mined at will. Of course this is all statistical, so Spectre will want some margin for randomness. So it would make sense to attach 1.5% of the blocks when Spectre reaches 51%
So once Spectre reaches 51% he has enough hashing power to prevent any of Bonds blocks (1.5%) from being included. Spectre can win a reorg (statistically) every 8.5 hrs and Bond can only produce a block (statisticly) every 11.1 hours. So once this attack starts, Spectre simply flashes his promotion to lure the miners in the Bond pool (who are receiving no reward) over to the Spectre pool. If he only gets one third of them, then he can increase his influence to 52%
Doing the same math again, with 52% Spectre can ice out any pool who has up to 4% of the hashing. Then running the promotion, Spectre will try to get 40% of the "homeless miners". Now Spectre's power grows to 55% giving him the power to ice out 10% of his competitors. This can cascade on and on until Spectre is the only public pool left.
Now, at 51% the attack and reorgs take many hours, but as more and more pools get targeted, more and more miners will jump ship and end up at Spectre so long as they can hold the promotion. Bond's only choice would be to either close up, or leverage everything and mine at a loss for weeks hoping that Spectre eventually drops below the threshold for his attack.
Of course Spectre has even more tremendous expenses. To offer the 1% promo to 10% of the network would cost Spectre $1.16 million / day, or 3.52 million per month for each percent of miners it lures over. So going from 41% to 61% would cost Spectre $70.3 million / month, but at that point he can attack 20% of the network giving him a reach of about 80% which is pretty much the entire pooled mining capacity today. Seems like $70 million is a small price to pay to buy the entire bitcoin network.
Other expenses Spectre would accrue would be related to the attacks and reorgs. The early attacks will take hours and throughout Spectre needs to continue payouts to the pool even though he is generating no BTC durring the attack. So long as his chain is orphaned, his blocks have no value. Only after the attack and reorg when his chain becomes longest will he be able to claim the block reward for all the blocks he minded. This (in my opinion) will the the hardest challenge. The first attack and 25 block reorg will require Spectre to put his entire 51% hashing power on an orphaned chain for 8 hours requireing $208.6 million in payouts. Once he wins the attack and the chain reorgs he can cover his expeses with the block reward, but borrowing $208 million for 8 hours is still a very difficult thing to pull off. The interest alone on the attack is over $40,000 (20% interest compounded continually). Below is a table of the calculations
Specte Bond Promo Cost Hrs Blks Levrg / Block Reorg Leverage Rate Int Cost
51.00% 1.50% $1,155,743 8.497 25 $8,025,990 $208,675,743 20% $40,485
51.50% 2.50% $1,232,745 5.825 17 $8,025,990 $144,467,822 20% $19,215
52.50% 4.50% $1,336,143 3.492 10 $8,025,990 $88,285,891 20% $7,039
54.50% 7.50% $1,562,998 2.141 6 $8,025,990 $56,181,931 20% $2,746
58.50% 14.50% $2,023,385 1.140 3 $8,025,990 $32,103,960 20% $835
66.70% 33.30% $2,970,442 0.500 1 $8,025,990 $16,051,980 20% $183
Of course, once Spectre gets 2/3 of the hashing power he controls the entire chain since he can include or exclude any block he wants. So this "Total Self Interest" simulation of a 6 day attack puts Spectre's expenses at $10.3 million in promotions and $71,000 in interest, or about $10.4 million total.
1 - All "hashes" are hashes per second
2 - TH = 1012 or 10004 hashes per second
3 - EH = 1018 or 10006 hashes per second
4 - Assume a market rate of 0.101 USD / TH / day
5 - Assume an average daily network hashrate of 116.73 EH
submitted by brianddk to brianddk [link] [comments]

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